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Alan Machin: Tourism As Education
Home page: blogs, introductions, links to main pages
Berlin: Editing a Townscape
... and reading a city that has had many rebuilders
Making Sense of The Travel Learning Experience- 1
1 Information Streams
Making Sense of the Travel Learning Experience - 2
Some basic theories
Back to Basics: Presentation given at the Cuba EduTourism Conference
The CETA Conference in Havana, Cuba, 8/9 November 2010
About the author
Comments - CV - photos
At the heart of the tourist experience
Learning through Landscapes
Exploring Oxfordshire (and a bit of Gloucestershire!)
The Environment As Data: Building New Theories For Tourism
How tourists relate to places
Sail Gives Way to Steam
A return visit discovers just how much has been achieved in this iconic restoration
Richard III and the Battle of Bosworth Reenactment
Visits to Leicester and the battlefield event, 2013
Along The Way
Recollections and Reflections of 60+ Years' Learning about the World and its Ways
On the Edge of the New World
Shaping New England
Exploring Holderness in East Yorkshire; October 2012
Past Historic
Graf Zepplin, Spain 1968, OS History, Much Wenlock Olympics, Chatham Dockyard, Hawes Tourism, Colonial Williamsburg,
A Summer of Travelling / Matthew Starr
Three months' backpacking in Africa, Asia and Australia
East Anglia
The Broads, Pensthorpe natural history, Radar Museum, Caister Lifeboat Service and more!
A Richer Earth
Discoveries in the landscape and attractions of Shropshire
Blog Index Page
Blog pages from 2009 listed
From Strip Map to Sat Nav
'Finding the way' aids to exploration
Showcasing the World
How the Tourist Microcosm took centre stage
Doing A Dissertation
Notes to help students preparing their proposals
The Japanese Tsunami Destruction at First Hand
Sarah and Tom Wadsworth saw for themselves
Showcases: Examples
The range and variety of tourism's focal points examined
Jigsaw: Frameworks of Knowledge
The tourist jigsaw puzzle of - knowledge
Books and other works useful in studying tourism as education
Tourism's Educational Origins: Part 2
The development of tourism as education, 1845 -
Tourism's Educational Origins: Part 1
Tourism's educational origins and management
Impressions of Tourism in Cuba
Thoughts on having seen some of the country myself
Captain James Cook: North Yorkshire Days
Tracing the early life of Britain's greatest maritime explorer
Hunting the Hound of the Baskervilles
Tracking down places that inspired the famous detective story and moulded Dartmoor's image
Exploring the Idea of Dark Tourism
What is it? Is it a useful idea?
Talking to Tourists
Visitor interpretation - guide books, visitor centres and other media
Shades of Light and Dark in the Garden of England
An exploration in East Sussex and Kent, June/July 2010
Hunting the Gladiator and the Gecko
A thirteen-year search for a wartime adventure
Steam Up For A Famous Film's Birthday Party
The Railway Children weekend on the Worth Valley line raises questions about heritage presentations
Anne-Marie Rhodes: Making a Difference in South East Asia
Leeds Met graduate of '07 describes her activities
Discoveries in Northumberland, April 2010
Alnwick Gardens; Winter's Gibbet; Holy Island, Cragside, Wallington Hall
Discoveries in the Midlands, March 2010
Bletchley Park National Codes and Cipher Centre; and the Rollright Stones
Alan Machin's Blog - April 2010
The development of tourism as education continued
Jigsaw Puzzle!
The Adventure of the Timely Tourist
Leaders Into The Field
People who inspired everyone to explore
Alan Machin's blogs - February and March 2010
Postings on the history tourism as education - redirection
Alan Machin's Blog - January 2010
Tourist photography and souvenirs
Earlier front-page blog postings - January 2010 onwards
Archived after being on the Home Page
News from higher education and - beyond
The Development of Educational Tourism
Key dates in the development of educational tourism
Alan Machin's Blog - December 2009
Christmas Quiz and other postings
Analysing Heritage Tourism
Ideas and perspectives on a hugely important sector
Alan Machin's Blog - November 2009
Visitors' Views of Stonehenge, West Sussex - and other Postings
Are Universities Losing Their Way?
Reflections having retired
Teaching Tourism At Leeds Met
Remembering the Best
Alan Machin's Blog - October 2009
Thoughts about university life and discovery by travel
Alan Machin's Blog - September 2009
Further postings about a trip last month to the USA, and about higher education
Alan Machin's Blog - August 2009
Postings about a trip this month to the USA
Alan Machin's Blog - July 2009
The Story So Far reaches the summer
Alan Machin's Blog - June 2009
The Story So Far looks back on seventeen years at Leeds Met
Alan Machin's Blog - May 2009
Another month of The Story So Far
Alan Machin's blog - April 2009
Yet more of the Story So Far
Alan Machin's blog - March 2009
More of The Story So Far
Alan Machin's Blog - February 2009
The Story So Far - pioneers, people and places
Alan Machin's Blog: January 2009
The Story So Far .... first postings of '09
Alan Machin's Blog: December 2008
The Story So Far .... latest postings
Alan Machin's Blog - November '08
The Story So Far.... continued
Alan Machin's Blog: October 2008
The Story So Far....
No Place Like Rome
The eternal city with the eternal tourists
Charleston, South Carolina
A photo essay about a fine historic city
Idealog - December 2007
Ideas, notes and comments
Idealog - November 2007
Ideas, notes and comments
The Educational Origins of Tourism
Discussion paper
Idealog - October 2007
Coton Military Cemetery; Education and Tourism; Chatham Maritime; Dickens World; Quiz Answers; Tourist Guides; Mediation In Tourism
Idealog - September 2007
Plane Paradox;Tour Guiding; Where in the World?; Do Tourism Students Know Where They Are?; Leeds Met's Wow!; Sea Harrier; Scarborough and Tourism As Education; Doing A Dissertation; Types of Tourist; A Media Lens; Cost of Travelling Alone; Risk of Bias?
Idealog - August 2007
A People Industry; Heritage Interpretation; Lud's Church; Tourists Go Home!; Stone Gappe YHA; Insight Guides; Eyewitness Guides; Bramhope Tunnel; Elizabethan Progress; Information Quality Matrix
Idealog - July 2007
Hidden Heroes, Health Tourism, Holme Fen Posts; Harrogate (again); Whitby Abbey; Dramatic Interpretation; Harrogate Interpretation, Attractions and Royal Hall
Idealog - June 2007
Christian Pilgrimage; Cincinnati Museums Centre; The Coming of the Guide Book; Talking to Tourists - Media, Stages of the Visit, The Service Journey; Tourism's Missing Link; The Final Call; SATuration level; Halifax's Edwardian Window on the World
Idealog - May 2007
Martin and Osa Johnson, Wensleydale Creamery, Malham Tarn, Thomas Cook, Northern Ireland's Tourism Rebuild, Jamestown Festival Park, Cite des Sciences
Idealog - April 2007
The Promenade Plantee, The Jardin des Plantes, Environmental Data, Victorian Beauty Spot Rediscovered, Jamestown, The Anglers' Country Park, Children's Museums, Fairburn Ings
Idealog - March 2007
A Sense of the Past- The 'Amsterdam', The Outdoor Classroom, Film-Induced Tourism, Making Tracks for the Coast and Country, Pictures, Context and Meaning, Classics-on-Sea, Hi Hi Everyone!, Dark Side of the Dream, Holodyne - The Action Cycle
Idealog - February 2007
Don't Go There!, Space Tourism, The Crystal Cathedral, New Books on Tourism, Dark Tourism - Undercliffe Cemetery, Showcase - The Louvre, A Class Act, First Impressions Count, Postal Pleasures, Canaletto in Venice, Serpent Mound, Capsule Culture etc
Idealog - January 2007
Capsule Culture,Seaside Style, Poble Espanyol, Mallorca, Edgar Dale, Children's Holiday Homes, Representations of Reality, Outdoor Education in Germany, Baedeker Guides, Geography Textbooks, Environmental Data Theory etc
Idealog - December 2006
Writers on Landscape, Story Books, The Deep, Flour Power and the Archers,Showcases: Grand Tour, Halifax Piece Hall, Books of Concern about Tourism, Tourist Traces, Tourist Typologies, The Growth of Educational Tourism, The Field Studies Council, etc
Idealog - November 2006
A blog of ideas, comments and notes
Travel To Understand: Belfast
Telling the stories of troubled times
World Quiz 2010
Geography with a tourism angle
The Monterey Bay Aquarium
An outstanding educational facility in California
Chicago: Tourism Re-Imaging
A closer view of an iconic city
Colonial Williamsburg
A Virginia history showcase
A Social Club Outing By Train, 1935
How to do Scotland in 30 hours flat
Going Dutch
Presenting the past in the Netherlands
Keukenhof: Business is Blooming
Using tourism to promote an industry
A View of Italy for the City
Trentham Gardens Revived
A Case Study in Heritage Management
A curious tale of misleading publicity
Old Rice Farm
The story of the house in the 'holler'
Perfection in Paradise: The Eden Project
New page being added: The Eden Project's design for success
Escaping From Slavery: Facing Our Past
The US National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
Prague Tourist Shows
Outstanding showcase attractions in the city
Retracing the Steps: Tourism as Education
ATLAS Conference paper given in Finland, 2000
Tourism and Historic Towns: The Cultural Key
A background paper for a Council of Europe Conference
The Social Helix
Visitor Interpretation as a Tool for Social Development, 1989
Malta Residential, 14-21 Feb 2006 - Page 1
Reports and Pictures
Malta Residential, 14-21 Feb 2006 - Page 2
Photos and reports of Friday 17 Feb onwards
Malta Residential, 14-21 February 2006 - Page 3
Reports and pictures from Sunday, 19 February onwards
Tourism Alumni Reunion, 8 March 2003
Leeds tourism students reunion 2003
World Geography Quiz 1
A test of your knowledge
The Adventure of the Timely Tourist
The answers
Tall Ships Race 2010 Converged on Hartlepool
A major event-based boost for tourism in the town
Plymouth: From the Tamar to the Sea
Starting point for explorations round the globe
Plimoth Plantation
A reconstruction of the Mayflower settlers' village of the 1620s on the north east coast of North America
World Geography Quiz 2010 - Answers
Geography with a tourism angle
World Geography Quiz - Answers
Christmas Quiz 2009 - Answers
A day in the city including the Botanic Garden
Tourist Showcases
Examples from around the world

Alan Machin's Blog - April 2010

Blog header - April 2010
Work in Progress banner

1970 The Pembrokeshire Countryside Unit under John Barrett, ex-field studies centre director at Dale Fort, offers the first modern guided walks programme. By the following year there are 80 walks in its list.
1969 Brockholes National Park Visitor Centre opens in the Lake District.

1968 UK Development of Tourism Act (effective 1 January 1969).

1967 Founding of the Weald and Downland Museum and the Ironbridge Gorge Museum. The Avoncroft Museum of Buildings is opened: all in the UK.

1959AD Coalbrookdale

1959 The Coalbrookdale Museum in Shropshire is opened after research by Dr G F Williams and Arthur Raistrick. As part of a much larger Ironbridge Gorge Museum it will create much interest in museums and their work in the 1970s.

1958 Work begins on the Ulster Folk Museum near Belfast.

1957 The BBC Natural History Unit starts work in Bristol, producing first of all “Faraway Look”.

1956 Desmond Morris introduces ‘Zoo Time’ for Granada television.

1955 Alf Wainwright produces the first of what will become a seven-part ‘Guide to the Lakeland Fells’. The hand-drawn and written guides will become a classic of their kind and constantly in demand.

Peter Scott - Look

1954 Peter Scott presents his first natural history programme, from Bristol. From 1955 it will be called “Look” and become in due course influential in creating interest in the natural outdoors.

- (Also in 1954) The first BBC ‘Zoo Quest’ series is filmed in Sierra Leone with David Attenborough.

1953 Disney’s first feature-length ‘Real Life Adventure’ film – “The Living Desert” is released.

1952 The first German Outward Bound School is opened by Kurt Hahn in the Schloss Weissenhaus on the Baltic.

- (Also in 1952) Disney releases an Academy Award-winning short – “Water Birds”. Disney’s films will include the Real Life Adventures series (see 1953) which, while distorting animal life by anthropomorphism, will open up much interest in natural history.

National Parks

1951 the first National Parks for England and Wales are founded: Peak district, Lake District and Snowdonia.

1950 Derbyshire County Council opens White Hall as an outdoor pursuits centre near Buxton. Jack Longland is the driving force behind it. He has links with the Outward bound Trust and Abbotsholme School.

1949 The Welsh Folk Museum is founded at St Fagans, Cardiff

1945 A National Park is set up in Kenya

1941AD Outward Bound & Field Studies Centres
Outdoor classroom

1941 Gordonstoun School has been evacuated from the north east of Scotland to Plas Dinan in Merionethshire. Its founder and headmaster, Kurt Hahn, who was involved in educational innovations in Germany before having to leave when Hitler came to power, begins a new initiative. Using finance supplied by Lawrence Holt of the Blue Funnel shipping line he sets up an Outward Bound school in Aberdovey. This is aimed at improving the physical health and teamworking qualities of young merchant navy recruits. In due course this adventure training movement will spread widely in industry and education at all levels and both males and females as an effective set of activities. Many organisations will be formed to carry it through, besides other established movements like Scouts and Guides and education authorities.

- (Also around this time) His Majesty’s Schools Inspector Francis Butler notices how different are children evacuated from cities at the start of the war from those country children they find themselves amongst. Realising the cultural and educational gaps that exist he works with Professor of Geography Sidney Wooldridge on ideas for environmental education. After World War II they will set up the Field Studies Council in Britain and in 1946 open the first of many study centres at Flatford Mill in Suffolk.

1939AD Futurama
Futurama composite

1939 The New York World’s Fair displays ‘Futurama’, an exhibit about General Motors which shows an amazingly complex animated model of what cities and countryside would be like in 1960. A conveyor carrying 552 swivelling chairs with an audio commentary for each one moves 2,150 visitors per day around the show. This pioneering system will be adopted in simpler form by many exhibitions and theme parks after the Second World War.

1938 The British Holidays With Pay Act guarantees two weeks’ annual holiday to all workers.

1937 The Palais de la Decouverte opens in Paris, the first museum to be a science demonstrations centre.
- (Also in 1937) An information centre for tourists opens in Great Cockspur St, London, operated by a travel association.

Wings Across Continents

1936 KLM presents passengers on its Amsterdam-Batavia Service with a hardback, 100-page book: E Rusman’s ‘Wings Across Continents’. The book describes in down-to-earth terms each of the places called at in the course of the flight.

- (Also in 1936) The ‘Tin Can Tourists of the World’ hold a convention in Florida attended by 1,094 caravan units.

Tin Can Tourists in Florida

1932 LNER introduces Camping Coaches at selected holiday locations. They are specially fitted to take six people for 2..10s a week each (2.50, equivalent to 83.55 in 2010). There are some larger units for 3.00 per week. Linen, crockery and utensils are provided. The GWR follows suite the next year and the LMS brings out Caravan Coaches.
- (Also in 1932) The first visitors make formal tours of Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia. It has been planned since 1924 and is a mix of conservation project and open air museum.
- (Also in 1932) Britain’s first open air museum is the Abbey Folk Park and Museum in New Barnet, Hertfordshire – 28 June. It contains buildings and artefacts. However it will last for only a few years and is now a private property.

Polytechnic Touring Association

1932 Britain’s first air charter holiday is organised by the Polytechnic Touring Association from Croydon Airport (south London) to Basle. The group stay at the PTA chalets in Lucerne. The cost is 12 or 14 per person for seven days (equivalent to 401 and 468 in 2010). 95% of the money therefore stays in the UK. The operation is made easier by an air transport slump at the time and 900 people take advantage of it, but the following year the slump will be over and Imperial Airways refuse to charter their aircraft any further. It will be after World War II that air charters return.

- (Also in 1932) UK Rights of Way Act begins to open up more public footpaths through the countryside.


1930 the British Youth Hostel Association is founded. The first hostel is opened in Pennant Hall in North Wales but it has to be closed hurriedly due to an unsafe water supply.

- (Also in 1930) Alf Wainwright takes is first trip to the Lake District and walks to the top of Orrest. It will inspire his lifetime leisure activity of writing his famous guidebooks – handwritten and illustrated by himself (his day job was as a local government officer).

- (Also in the 1930s) Orienteering is developed in Sweden during the decade.

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