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Alan Machin: Tourism As Education
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Back to Basics: Presentation given at the Cuba EduTourism Conference
The CETA Conference in Havana, Cuba, 8/9 November 2010
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At the heart of the tourist experience
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Sail Gives Way to Steam
A return visit discovers just how much has been achieved in this iconic restoration
Richard III and the Battle of Bosworth Reenactment
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A Richer Earth
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Doing A Dissertation
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The Japanese Tsunami Destruction at First Hand
Sarah and Tom Wadsworth saw for themselves
Showcases: Examples
The range and variety of tourism's focal points examined
Jigsaw: Frameworks of Knowledge
The tourist jigsaw puzzle of - knowledge
Books and other works useful in studying tourism as education
Tourism's Educational Origins: Part 2
The development of tourism as education, 1845 -
Tourism's Educational Origins: Part 1
Tourism's educational origins and management
Impressions of Tourism in Cuba
Thoughts on having seen some of the country myself
Captain James Cook: North Yorkshire Days
Tracing the early life of Britain's greatest maritime explorer
Hunting the Hound of the Baskervilles
Tracking down places that inspired the famous detective story and moulded Dartmoor's image
Exploring the Idea of Dark Tourism
What is it? Is it a useful idea?
Talking to Tourists
Visitor interpretation - guide books, visitor centres and other media
Shades of Light and Dark in the Garden of England
An exploration in East Sussex and Kent, June/July 2010
Hunting the Gladiator and the Gecko
A thirteen-year search for a wartime adventure
Steam Up For A Famous Film's Birthday Party
The Railway Children weekend on the Worth Valley line raises questions about heritage presentations
Anne-Marie Rhodes: Making a Difference in South East Asia
Leeds Met graduate of '07 describes her activities
Discoveries in Northumberland, April 2010
Alnwick Gardens; Winter's Gibbet; Holy Island, Cragside, Wallington Hall
Discoveries in the Midlands, March 2010
Bletchley Park National Codes and Cipher Centre; and the Rollright Stones
Alan Machin's Blog - April 2010
The development of tourism as education continued
Jigsaw Puzzle!
The Adventure of the Timely Tourist
Leaders Into The Field
People who inspired everyone to explore
Alan Machin's blogs - February and March 2010
Postings on the history tourism as education - redirection
Alan Machin's Blog - January 2010
Tourist photography and souvenirs
Earlier front-page blog postings - January 2010 onwards
Archived after being on the Home Page
News from higher education and - beyond
The Development of Educational Tourism
Key dates in the development of educational tourism
Alan Machin's Blog - December 2009
Christmas Quiz and other postings
Analysing Heritage Tourism
Ideas and perspectives on a hugely important sector
Alan Machin's Blog - November 2009
Visitors' Views of Stonehenge, West Sussex - and other Postings
Are Universities Losing Their Way?
Reflections having retired
Teaching Tourism At Leeds Met
Remembering the Best
Alan Machin's Blog - October 2009
Thoughts about university life and discovery by travel
Alan Machin's Blog - September 2009
Further postings about a trip last month to the USA, and about higher education
Alan Machin's Blog - August 2009
Postings about a trip this month to the USA
Alan Machin's Blog - July 2009
The Story So Far reaches the summer
Alan Machin's Blog - June 2009
The Story So Far looks back on seventeen years at Leeds Met
Alan Machin's Blog - May 2009
Another month of The Story So Far
Alan Machin's blog - April 2009
Yet more of the Story So Far
Alan Machin's blog - March 2009
More of The Story So Far
Alan Machin's Blog - February 2009
The Story So Far - pioneers, people and places
Alan Machin's Blog: January 2009
The Story So Far .... first postings of '09
Alan Machin's Blog: December 2008
The Story So Far .... latest postings
Alan Machin's Blog - November '08
The Story So Far.... continued
Alan Machin's Blog: October 2008
The Story So Far....
No Place Like Rome
The eternal city with the eternal tourists
Charleston, South Carolina
A photo essay about a fine historic city
Idealog - December 2007
Ideas, notes and comments
Idealog - November 2007
Ideas, notes and comments
The Educational Origins of Tourism
Discussion paper
Idealog - October 2007
Coton Military Cemetery; Education and Tourism; Chatham Maritime; Dickens World; Quiz Answers; Tourist Guides; Mediation In Tourism
Idealog - September 2007
Plane Paradox;Tour Guiding; Where in the World?; Do Tourism Students Know Where They Are?; Leeds Met's Wow!; Sea Harrier; Scarborough and Tourism As Education; Doing A Dissertation; Types of Tourist; A Media Lens; Cost of Travelling Alone; Risk of Bias?
Idealog - August 2007
A People Industry; Heritage Interpretation; Lud's Church; Tourists Go Home!; Stone Gappe YHA; Insight Guides; Eyewitness Guides; Bramhope Tunnel; Elizabethan Progress; Information Quality Matrix
Idealog - July 2007
Hidden Heroes, Health Tourism, Holme Fen Posts; Harrogate (again); Whitby Abbey; Dramatic Interpretation; Harrogate Interpretation, Attractions and Royal Hall
Idealog - June 2007
Christian Pilgrimage; Cincinnati Museums Centre; The Coming of the Guide Book; Talking to Tourists - Media, Stages of the Visit, The Service Journey; Tourism's Missing Link; The Final Call; SATuration level; Halifax's Edwardian Window on the World
Idealog - May 2007
Martin and Osa Johnson, Wensleydale Creamery, Malham Tarn, Thomas Cook, Northern Ireland's Tourism Rebuild, Jamestown Festival Park, Cite des Sciences
Idealog - April 2007
The Promenade Plantee, The Jardin des Plantes, Environmental Data, Victorian Beauty Spot Rediscovered, Jamestown, The Anglers' Country Park, Children's Museums, Fairburn Ings
Idealog - March 2007
A Sense of the Past- The 'Amsterdam', The Outdoor Classroom, Film-Induced Tourism, Making Tracks for the Coast and Country, Pictures, Context and Meaning, Classics-on-Sea, Hi Hi Everyone!, Dark Side of the Dream, Holodyne - The Action Cycle
Idealog - February 2007
Don't Go There!, Space Tourism, The Crystal Cathedral, New Books on Tourism, Dark Tourism - Undercliffe Cemetery, Showcase - The Louvre, A Class Act, First Impressions Count, Postal Pleasures, Canaletto in Venice, Serpent Mound, Capsule Culture etc
Idealog - January 2007
Capsule Culture,Seaside Style, Poble Espanyol, Mallorca, Edgar Dale, Children's Holiday Homes, Representations of Reality, Outdoor Education in Germany, Baedeker Guides, Geography Textbooks, Environmental Data Theory etc
Idealog - December 2006
Writers on Landscape, Story Books, The Deep, Flour Power and the Archers,Showcases: Grand Tour, Halifax Piece Hall, Books of Concern about Tourism, Tourist Traces, Tourist Typologies, The Growth of Educational Tourism, The Field Studies Council, etc
Idealog - November 2006
A blog of ideas, comments and notes
Travel To Understand: Belfast
Telling the stories of troubled times
World Quiz 2010
Geography with a tourism angle
The Monterey Bay Aquarium
An outstanding educational facility in California
Chicago: Tourism Re-Imaging
A closer view of an iconic city
Colonial Williamsburg
A Virginia history showcase
A Social Club Outing By Train, 1935
How to do Scotland in 30 hours flat
Going Dutch
Presenting the past in the Netherlands
Keukenhof: Business is Blooming
Using tourism to promote an industry
A View of Italy for the City
Trentham Gardens Revived
A Case Study in Heritage Management
A curious tale of misleading publicity
Old Rice Farm
The story of the house in the 'holler'
Perfection in Paradise: The Eden Project
New page being added: The Eden Project's design for success
Escaping From Slavery: Facing Our Past
The US National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
Prague Tourist Shows
Outstanding showcase attractions in the city
Retracing the Steps: Tourism as Education
ATLAS Conference paper given in Finland, 2000
Tourism and Historic Towns: The Cultural Key
A background paper for a Council of Europe Conference
The Social Helix
Visitor Interpretation as a Tool for Social Development, 1989
Malta Residential, 14-21 Feb 2006 - Page 1
Reports and Pictures
Malta Residential, 14-21 Feb 2006 - Page 2
Photos and reports of Friday 17 Feb onwards
Malta Residential, 14-21 February 2006 - Page 3
Reports and pictures from Sunday, 19 February onwards
Tourism Alumni Reunion, 8 March 2003
Leeds tourism students reunion 2003
World Geography Quiz 1
A test of your knowledge
The Adventure of the Timely Tourist
The answers
Tall Ships Race 2010 Converged on Hartlepool
A major event-based boost for tourism in the town
Plymouth: From the Tamar to the Sea
Starting point for explorations round the globe
Plimoth Plantation
A reconstruction of the Mayflower settlers' village of the 1620s on the north east coast of North America
World Geography Quiz 2010 - Answers
Geography with a tourism angle
World Geography Quiz - Answers
Christmas Quiz 2009 - Answers
A day in the city including the Botanic Garden
Tourist Showcases
Examples from around the world

The Development of Educational Tourism

Click here for details of the November 8/9 International Conference on EduTourism in Cuba

Tourism - Educational Origins

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Click here for Page 2

Sources: The information has been culled from many sources from comprehensive chronologies to newspaper articles and conference papers. Most are easily verifiable from published material, but the reference to Butler and Wooldridge came from a conference paper for which the academic concerned was unable to give a source, and efforts to trace it since by myself proved fruitless. I would be delighted to hear from anyone who can corroborate the note, or indeed to add, or correct, information.

Useful sources include:

Feifer, Maxine (1985) Going Places: The Ways of the Tourist From Imperial Rome to the Present Day, London, Macmillan: general tourism history

Pimlott, J A R (1947, reprint of 1977) The Englishman’s Holiday: A Social History, reprint by Hassocks (Sussex), Harvester Press

Strager, James (1992) The People’s Chronology, London, Aurum Press: an encyclopaedic work covering general historical material.

Speedboat of Captiva Island, Florida

385 AD
St Jerome records the visit of travellers to Jerusalem. They are shown places with Biblical associations. A Roman lady, Paula, takes away pebbles from some of the sites, reads aloud from a Bible, and shows great emotions at Calvary.
Pope Damasius arranges for a signposting system to be installed in the catacombs of Rome.

Pilgrims to Rome are able to buy a guide to a route around the main churches of Rome. The term "pilgrim" derives from the Latin "peregrinus" meaning foreigner or stranger, and by association becomes for a time a general word meaning traveller.

The supposed body of St James the Apostle is "discovered" at Compostela in north-west Spain. A shrine is built and he becomes known there as St James of Compostela.

The monastery of St Maximin in Provence claims to have the body of Mary Magdalene in a sarcophagus. The Count of Provence holds a gala ceremony to display the relic and Pope Boniface VIII grants an indulgence on it. The cathedral of Vezelay in Burgundy had long claimed to have the body, but its boast was soon discounted in favour of St Maximin.

c13 C
The journey to Rome is made by the Church into part of a credit system towards so many years of pardon for sins: eg one journey followed by 395 high masses gives ninety-two years' pardon.

First licence is issued to an English 'pilgrim shipper' to sail from Plymouth to La Corunna, taking pilgrims travelling to Compostela. The journey took four days' sailing and a few hours' walk.

By 1428
925 pilgrim boats are operating from England to Spain. They often returned with wine as an additional cargo.

Sir Philip Sydney commences a Grand Tour, paid for by Queen Elizabeth I, in order to learn continental methods of government. Returns in 1575.

Sydney visits bi-annual Frankfurt Book Fair, an international gathering of publishers, scholars and authors. The city population tripled during that time. The Book Fair is still held.

Fynes Moryson sets out on a Grand Tour paid for by Queen Elizabeth I, to study law, and also receives 20 for each of two years from Peterhouse College, Cambridge - about 1,000 per year at 1980 prices.

(May) First known 'Herbarizing' excursion organised by the Society of Apothecaries, when apprentices were taught to recognise the 'simples' or drug plants during a visit to the country. The Society later appointed a 'Demonstrator of Plants' who stood in the Chelsea Physic Garden on the last Wednesday in each month to expound the names of plants. Herbarizings finally ceased in 1834 when it was decided that London had grown too big to organise practicable excursions.

Samuel Pepys records a visit to Hatfield House and a guided tour by the Earl of Shaftesbury's gardener.

First use of the term 'Grand Tour'.

The Temple Coffee House Botanic Club is formed as a social group meeting on Friday evenings, with excursions on Sundays and some summer holidays to places round London.

Joseph Addison sets out on a Grand Tour to write a new guidebook to Europe based on the writings of Horace and Virgil.

Cost of lodging in Rome, per week, 4 (? 100 at modern prices). Cost of three-volume guidebook to Rome, Antica and Moderna, 10/- (1980 prices ? 13.50).

The 'Annual Register' classifies the reasons for foreign travel as "polite education, the love of variety, the pursuit of health" (cf 1768).

William Buckland, Reader in Geology at Oxford, holds one of his famous "Geological Rides" for the British Association meeting in Oxford. Meets in carriages or on horseback on the London Road and proceed to Shotover Hill where refreshments are taken in tents, fossils are purchased from local labourers, and Buckland lectures.

Adam Sedgwick starts "Geological Rides" from Cambridge. they prove instantly popular - up to seventy students on horseback follow him across the fens and hear five lectures in a day, the last usually being on fen drainage, delivered on the cathedral roof at Ely.

The first guidebook is published by Baedeker: in due course it will lead to a series of leading European guides.

Thomas Cook's first excursion takes 570 people by train from Leicester to Loughborough for an event in the open air with speeches, entertainment and food. Cook's purpose is stated to be "to unite man with man, and man with God" (Cook's "Physical, Moral and Social Aspects of Excursions and Tours"). The event is notable for the quality and detail of the arrangements.

Thomas Cook organises a public trip to Liverpool which does not have any motive other than to have an enjoyable time - ie the 1841 excursion was aimed at promoting teetotalism. Cook checks all hotels and restaurants in advance for his 350 participants. Afterwards he writes a "Handbook of the Trip to Liverpool" - the first guidebook of its kind. As this tour included transport, meals, accommodation and 'the services of a tour manager' as we would now say, it qualifies as the first-ever leisure package tour, over a century before the first aircraft-based trips to the Mediterranean. The previous Loughborough visit was a day excursion only.

Thomas Cook's first European Tour.

Thomas Cook's first tour of the USA.

Thomas Cook's first world tour.
Foundation of the Polytechnic Touring Association under the influence of Quentin Hogg.

The Reverend T A Leonard takes a party from Colne in Ambleside for four days at a cost of 21/- a head. This leads to the formation of the Co-operative Holidays Association as a company in 1897.

The CHA puts funds into starting the Free Holiday Movement, with members nominating poor people for free holidays. The following year the CHA refers to members as "Sons of Faith, Nature and Comradeship".

An Act of Parliament is passed setting up the National Trust in its present form.
Richard Schirmann, in Germany, opens his school to slum children, and begins the "wandervogel" movement. It is anti-militarist, anti-machinery, pro country life. The origins of youth hostelling are usually traced to this date, though the Swedish Touring Club had provided low-cost accommodation in simple shelters.

Baden-Powell's first scout camp is held on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour from 9 August. Of twenty boys taking part, nine were members of the Boys' Brigade. In September, Robert Young forms a Glasgow Schools' Officer Training Corps, and is later persuaded by Baden-Powell to introduce Scout training.

The Boy Scouts' Movement is begun officially by Baden-Powell. "Scouting for Boys" begins to be issued fortnightly at 4d a copy from January. In May, the first Scout Camp is held by a Sunderland troop under Colonel Vaux, camping for a month. Many participants were newsboys and received 5/- a week from Colonel Vaux to cover lost earnings. Halfway through they were joined by the Kangaroo Patrol of the 1st Hampstead Troop.

Steve Mather of US National Parks Service observes Lake Tahoe Guides interpreting the area to visitors. Their organisers, Mr and Mrs Goethe, had drawn inspiration from a British field teacher using heuristic methods at the Lake of the Four Cantons in Switzerland. [No known link with T C Horsfall, c1875].

The Order of Woodcraft Chivalry founded by Ernest Westlake. It will use outdoor activities as an educational strategy - similar to the Boy Scouts and other movements.

Horace M Albright of the US National Parks Service hires a Park Ranger to give lectures, guided walks and field trips, produce a bulletin and operate a museum. He later recalls that in the early 1900s interpretive techniques were in use at Yosemite, Yellowstone, and in Arizona.

Gordonstoun School is evacuated to Plas Dinan, Merionethshire for the duration of the war. Kurt Hahn obtains financial help from Lawrence holt of the Blue Funnel Line to start the Outward Bound school at Aberdovey, which he does in the following year. His Moray Badge scheme of character training had been tried by local authorities under the title of the County Badge scheme, but it was not successful until modified as the Duke of Edinburgh's Award post-war. Hahn's wish to pursue adventure training was directed into the Aberdovey venture meanwhile.

c 1940 HMI Schools Inspector Francis Butler identifies the cultural gap between urban and rural children, as shown during the evacuation. He joins with Professor Wooldridge in advocating field studies.

Aberdovey Outward Bound School opens: first purpose-built educational centre to concentrate on education within the countryside.

The first Field Studies Centre is opened at Flatford Mill in Suffolk.

White Hall, Derbyshire County Council's country pursuits centre, opens near Buxton. Main drive behind it is Sir Jack Longland, who had been on the 1933 Everest Expedition, was on the Board of the Outward Bound Trust and had connections with Abbotsholme.

Gerard Blitz founds the Club Mediterranee as a way of allowing visitors an environment in which they can get back to nature. The first centre is in Majorca. In the 1970s a changed economic situation will lead to a growth of its distinctive holiday camps, especially with centres in the Caribbean for the North American market. An image will then be created of holidays for young adults with a frisson of intimate fun. By 1994 the chain will stretch to 80 centres in 24 countries.

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